Reasons for controlling the speed of intravenous drip are as follows: a) to avoid phlebitis and even venous thrombosis risk of with vascular irritating drugs; b)to avoid serious adverse reactions caused by high peak blood concentration; c) to avoid risk of pulmonary edema caused by blood volume increases. Here are 10 Antibiotics with Infusion Time More Than 60 Minutes.
- Dosage: Usually, adults are given 0.5 to 2 g a day, divided into 2 to 4 intravenous infusions, and the infusion time is 30 minutes to 2 hours.
- Reason:Vascular pain and thrombophlebitis occasionally caused by cefotiam; cephalosporins are time-dependent antibiotics, and the infusion time can be prolonged as much as possible.
- Tips:Due to the poteitial risk of shock, a detailed consultation should be conducted before administration, and it is best to do a skin sensitivity test before injection.
- Dosage: For adults, 0.6-1.2g/day, divided into 2-4 doses, and the dose of the drug should not exceed 1.2g within 1 hour.
- Clindamycin might cause respiratory depression due to its neuromuscular blocking effect. And clindamycin can cause local irritating pain and may also cause thrombophlebitis if rapid transfusion.
- Tips: The respiratory depression effect of clindamycin and the central respiratory depression effect of opioids may lead to prolonged respiratory depression or respiratory paralysis, so the patient must be closely observed.
- Dosage:0.4g once, once a day, the infusion time should be 90 minutes.
- Moxifloxacin prolongs the QT interval, and rapid infusion rates can cause arrhythmias.
- Dosage:Azithromycin 500mg + vehicle 500ml, the final concentration is 1.0mg/ml, the intravenous drip should be 3 hours;Azithromycin 500mg + vehicle 250ml, the final concentration is 2.0mg/ml, the intravenous infusion should be 1 hour.
- Reason:Azithromycin can cause phlebitis so should be dripped slowly. It might cause severe gastrointestinal adverse reactions such as nausea and vomiting due to gastrointestinal motility effect.
- Dosage:adults 2g/day, 0.5g every 6 hours or 1g every 12 hours; each intravenous infusion should be more than 1 hour.
- Reason:Short-term intravenous infusion of this drug can cause the release of histamine to cause side effects such as red man syndrome and hypotension.
- Tips: Vancomycin for injection can not be used for for intramuscular injection.
- Norvancomycin can not be used for intramuscular injection, and the infusion time should be more than 1 hour. Teicoplanin can not be used for intramuscular injection, intravenous infusion time should be not less than 30 minutes.
- Dosage: 0.2 ~ 0.3g at a time, once a day, diluted in 100ml or 250ml of 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% glucose injection for intravenous infusion, each infusion time is 1 hour.
- Reason:: Aminoglycoside antibiotics have neuromuscular blocking effects, and excessive infusion rate can cause respiratory depression.
- Tips: Gentamicin, amikacin should be instilled slowly within 30 to 60 minutes.
- Dosage: Usual dose for adults is 500 mg at a time, 3 times a day, and the time of each infusion should not be less than 2-4 hours.
- Reason: Fusidic acid can cause thrombophlebitis and venous spasm.
- Tips: Fusidic acid has a bactericidal effect by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis, and has a strong antibacterial effect on G+ bacteria. It is also highly sensitive to Staphylococcus, including resistant strains to penicillin and methicillin.
- Dosage: Maximum daily dose for adults does not exceed 1 mg/kg, administered once a day or every 1 to 2 days.
- Dilute with 5% glucose injection, the drug concentration of the instillation solution does not exceed 10mg/100ml, and it should be instilled slowly in the dark, and the infusion time should be more than 6 hours. The pH of the diluted glucose injection should be above 4.2.
- Reason: Rapid infusion can cause cardiotoxicity, including atrial fibrillation, ventricular fibrillation, bradycardia, and dilated cardiomyopathy.
- Tips: Amphotericin B liposomes: 3.0-4.0 mg/kg/day, maximum 6 mg/kg/day. It can only be diluted with 5% glucose injection, and the infusion time can be shortened to not less than 2 hours.
- Dosage: 6 mg/kg once every 12 hours; 4 mg/kg once every 12 hours after.
- Reason: Voriconazole can cause phlebitis, thrombophlebitis; can cause QT interval prolongation.
- Tips: Fluconazole drip rate should not to exceed 10ml/min.
- Dosage: 70 mg per day on the first day, 50 mg per day after. Caspofungin for injection is first dissolved in water for injection, and then diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride injection or lactated Ringer’s solution. The infusion time is about 1 hour.
- Reason: Caspofungin can cause phlebitis, thrombophlebitis as well as tachycardia.
- Tips:Usual single daily dose of Micafungin for adults is 50-150 mg per day by intravenous infusion.